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Luxol Emulsion

A premium Matt Finish with coverage of 10 – 12 sqmt/Ltr formulated with sufficient fungicides to prevent mold growth. Application - Thin the paint ratio 4:1 and apply as first coat, after 30mins apply a full coat.

Touch dry - 30min
Hand dry - 2hours
It is a 2 coat finish

Super star Emulsion

A matt finish with coverage of 8 – 10mt/Ltr. Formulated with sufficient fungicides to prevent mould growth. Application- For Both Internal and External use.

Application as above.
It is a 3 coat finish

Robbialac Emulsion

A matt finish with coverage of 6-7sqmt/Ltr

Application: Recommended for internal use.
It is a 3 – 4coat finish

Luxol Gloss

A high quality air drying paint with durable pigment, formulated to give high gloss, good flow and leveling properties.
It has covering capacity of 10 – 12sqm/Ltr. It is a 2 coat finish.

Super Star Gloss

An economy air-drying paints, with covering capacity of 8 – 10sqm/Lt. It is a 3 coat finish.

Robbialac Gloss

Air drying gloss paint with covering capacity of 8sqm/Ltr.
It is a 3 – 4 coat finish.

Fire Retardant Texcote

A high quality textured coating with high quality light fast pigment and titanium dioxide with fungicide. This available in white and other brilliant colours for interior and exterior applications on wall.
Spreading rate of 1.5m2/Ltr.

Luxol Gloss

A high quality air drying paint with durable pigment, formulated to give high gloss, good flow and leveling properties. It has covering capacity of 10 – 12sqm/Ltr. It is a 2 coat finish.

Red Oxide Metal Primer

A protective coating designed for protection of metal surface against rust and corrosion. It consists of air dryig modified alkyd resi with anti-corrosive pigment to prevent water and air contact with the bare surface of the substrate thereby preventing rusting.

Alkaline Resisting Primer

A single pack primer based on suitably plasticized chlorinated rubber binder. It is recommended as a primer on freshly plastered wall to prevent alkali penetration into the paint.

What is Universal Undercoat?

Undercoat have poor exterior durability, they are use for priming of a surface before the application of the finish coats. They have a matt finish with a good film hold out.
They are easily rubbed smooth with abrasive paper.

What is Bergernol

This is an organic solvent based wood preservatives, the use of Bergerol is a chemical way of treating and preserving wood from fungicide and insect attack.
Bergernol Wood preservers are in two distinct variants; the clear wood preserver is an idea for wood surfaces that are to be painted for treatment.
Bergernol Brown wood preserver is idea for rafters' fences.

Linseed Oil Putty

This is a grayish paste that contains Blown Linseed oil and raw linseed oil as the media in which extenders and small quantities of black pigments are dispersed. It is used for glazing windows and louvers.

Wood Primers

They are based on an oil modified alkyd resin with extenders and durable pigments formulated in such a way that they would seal the porosity of the woods and bind the primer to the wood surface. Examples of Berger brands are pink and aluminium wood primers.

Sterilizing Solution

A wash solution of fungicide and algaecide.
It is used to treat and sterilize algae/fungi infected walls and surfaces.
It also delays the growth of new spores of fungus and algae.
Thorough scraping of infected surfaces is recommended before the use of sterilizing solution.

Berger Clinstay

A washable water based paint with high sheen. It is a high performance finish that allows easy cleaning and light scrubbing. Spreading rate 15m2/ltr.
Selling Point
1. Emulsion with higher sheen
2. Suitable for high traffic areas, kids room, walls hospital and school walls.
NOTE: Not to be applied externally


Rufhide is wall putty used in covering minor cracks or holes on plaster or wall board.
1. A water based putty with superior adhesive strength over conventional P.O.P and other spreading materials.
2. Flexibility
3. Durability(even for exterior application)


A premium quality textured emulsion paint without aggregates.
Selling Advantages
1. Tough durable finish due to high film build.
2. One Coat application
3. For patterned finish without any aggregates.

Emerald Matt

This is high quality water repellent emulsion paint. This is a finish designed to withstand extreme condition whilst retaining its excellent t decorative appearance.

Selling Point

1. Low dirt pick-up
2. Resistance to stain
3. Maximum resistance to harsh weather condition e.g coastal areas
4. Excellent durability ideal for high buildings.
5. Resistance to fungi and algae growth.


A high quality fine textured coating with high pigmentation and extra preservatives which are responsible for its high opacity and durability.
This is a one coat textured finish with carefully selected silica aggregate to give a beautiful pattern hold-out.


Protocol is a specialized paint that repels insects. It operates by blocking the feeding mechanism of mosquitoes. Hence the insects can no longer feed. Due to the sensitive smell organs of these crawling insects, it has been observed that they usually avoid perching on procol painted surfaces and move to another surfaces as clothing wardrobes.

Selling Point

1. Effective and environmental/users friendly.
2. Suitable for homes, prisons, hospitals, hotels and hostels.

Non – decorative product ranges are classified into three:-

1. General industrial Products
2. Automotive Vehicle Refinishes
3. Marine & Protecton


(i) Coil Coating Enamels(G25)
A polyester based oven baked liquid coating for application on continuous steel or Aluminum strip.
Features – Highly dependent on customer specification.
Typical Use – Treated Aluminium or steel used for roofing, wall- cladding, housing and casting.

(ii) Stoving Enamels (G6)
An alkyd based oven – baked paint formulated to give a good, mar resistance finish.
Features – Durable film, high Gloss and good weather resistance.
Typical Use – Domestic appliances and general metal.

(iii) Quick Drying Enamel (Q.D.E)
A general purpose styrene modified Alkyd based, its good durability combined with an exceptionally high Gloss imparts an excellent long lasting appearance.
Feature: Fast drying, good hiding power protects the formation of fungus.
Typical Use: General Purpose.

(iv) Cellulose Enamel:
Enamel based on alkyd and nitrocellulose resin, it has moderate water resistance. It is sensitive to heat and certain solvent.
(a) Fast drying
(b) The finish could be Glossy, Satin or Matt.

(v) wood finishing : Lignolac is our trade name for wood finishing .
- Cellulose Sanding Sealer
- Lacquer Gloss – Moderate water resistance
- Lacquer Matt
- Lacquer Satin
- Polyurethane Varnish Matt – A clear, durable, water –resistant Finish.
- Nitromatching Stains(Warm, Cold, Mid – warm) Wood may be stained to many shades of block, brown, yellow, red, e.t.c.

(I) It makes cheaper woods look like more expensive wood.
(II) It enhances the grain and makes furniture woods appear attractive.


- Autolux KH
- Autocryl
- Cellulose Primer Grey

(i) Autolux KH: A single pack autoflex paint for refurbishing of automobiles body frame. Available in solid and metallic colours. Features: Fast drying, long lasting, very good gloss. Typical Use: Automobile body frame.

(ii) Autocryl: A two – pack acrylic top coat with high hardness, excellent gloss and colour retention. Available only in solid colours.
Feature: Excellent weather resistance
Excellent Gloss retention
Excellent colour retention
High durability.
Typical use: As a primer (undercoat) for automobile.


1. Epoxy Coatings:
They are high performance coatings for protection of metal, steel and concrete. They are available in primers, High Build and finish state. They are basically two pack products PartA(Base) and PartB(Hardener)

1a) Epoxy Primer: This is use directly on the metal after blasting( surface preparation) to prevent rust.
Features: Non Toxic, a two – coat to improve adhesion, can be used in normal and chemical environment.
Superior resistance to moisture, corrosion and rust.
Typical use: All structural steel.

1b) Epoxy inorganic Zinc Silicate (PM9400)
This is a form of Expoxy Primier used in highly corrosive area. The Zinc content is the self sacrificial metal that provides the full protection to the substrate. It is also used directly on the bare metal.
Features: High percentage Zinc content.
- Gives outstanding Galvanic protection to steel
- It is weldable
Typical Use; Chemical factories, Refiniries, heavy industrial environments.

2). Epoxy High Build:
This is the conventional High build used on suitably primed steel. It provides excellent protection I demanding environments such as fresh and salt water, oxidizing acids, alkalis and oils.
Features- Excellent resistance to corrosion, abrasion and chemical attack.
- Gives a high dry film of above 100microns
- Resist bacterial attack
- Exhibit long- term protection.
Typical Use:
Crude oil Pipelines, concrete factory floor, swimming pool, fish ponds, food processing industry and structural steel.

2b) Epoxy Ultra High Build;
High performance, higher film build, long term protective coating which requires no top coat for excellent performance.
Features: Excellent adhesion
Chemical resistance
Abrasion resistance
Low temperature Cure
Long lasting protection effect
Can give a build of 350m/cm.

3) Epoxy Finish:
A two pack polyamide cured epoxy coating, Resistance to corrosion, chemicals and heat up to 150 C. It gives a tough and durable finish. They are used on a suitably primed steel or on concrete for floor.
Features: Corrosion and chemical resistance, Decorate and protect substrate. Resist grease, oil and many other substance that would have ruined an ordinary painted finish.
Typical Use: Steel, concrete, garage floor, asbestos, bricks, chemical plants, vessels, Refineries.

4) Acrylic Polyurethane:
A two pack Topcoat.
It offers excellent UV protection, glass retention, abrasion resistance and compatible with epoxy. Even after prolonged exposure, the film remains flexible and beautiful.
Features: Excellent colour and Gloss retention .
A smooth finish to a variety of substrates.
Excellent decorative.
Typical Use:
New construction and maintenance in chemical and industrial environment.
Fabricated tanks, pipelines, machineries, handrails, gates, concrete and wood.

5) Marine Coating/Alkyd Gloss: A single pack high quality decorative finish based on alkyd. It is design for easy application.
Features: Good Gloss
Easy to apply.
Reasonably cheaper than Epoxy and Polyurethane Finish
Available in Gloss and Matt Finish.

6) Antifouling paint or Bottom paint is a specialized coating application on the hull of a ship or boat In order to slow down the growth of organisms that attach to the hull and can effect a vessel's performance and durability. Features: Toxic to marine organisms
Typical use : Bottom of a ship or boat(The hull of a ship)

7) Bright aluminium:
A premium quality, bright luster aluminium paint for interior or exterior use. It can be used where the temperature is up to 200 C. Feature: Bright leafing appearance.
Easy to apply
Typical Use: Iron, Steel. Aluminium, Wood and galvanized metal.

8) Road Marking
A universal chlorubler based coating, suitable for application on roads. It provides visual guidance to road users particularly at night. Its usually non bleeding.
Available in reflective and non-reflective form.
Features: High build, good coverage, fast drying, non – skid, abrasion resistance, good adhesion withstand water and fluctuating humidity, non chalking or yellowing.
Typical use; Asphalt, Concrete, Bricks, Runways Iron helipad, steel ad sport facilities.


The quality of surface preparation, and surface repair on new, or repainted surfaces, significantly affects the amount of preparatory work that will be required for all subsequent repaints.
Surface preparation and surface repair are the most important requirement for maximum durability from any paint system. Because the results of surface preparation and repair are quickly concealed by the first coat of paint, the effects are not usually evident until premature paint failures occurs.
The first step should always be a thorough examination of the surface to be painted, checking for peeling and faded paint, dirt, chalking, grease, cracking, knots, bare areas, mildew, rust, nail stains and structural problems. All surfaces, whether painted or unpainted, must be clean, free from shine, sound and dry prior to finishing.


Remove all loose and peeling paint by scraping, water brush or power-washing the surface. Feather – sand rough edges smooth until they blend with bare surface.

Remove these deposits by washing with a detergent solution (TSP) or commercial cleaner recommended for cleaning painted surfaces using a sponge or brush. Protected areas, such as under eaves and overhangs, need special attention to remove invisible deposits that can promote a premature peeling problem. After washing thoroughly rinse with clean water and allow to dry. Power – washing is also a fast, effective method of removing dirt, chalk, etc. If a power – washer is used, follow the manufacturing's recommended and warnings.

MILDEW Spotty patches that look like dirt, but do not come off when scrubbed with detergent solution, are probably mildew.
Mildew can occur on any side of the house, but is more likely to grow in shaded areas or behind shrubbery.
It can easily be identified from others forms of discoloration by applying a few drops bleach.
If mildew is present, the black, gray or brown color will out and disappear within one or two minutes. Mildew must be killed and removed, the active spores will continue to grow and may almost immediately begin to reappear in a recently repainted surface. Where mildew is present, apply a solution of one part household bleach and three parts water or use a commercial mildew remover. It is mandatory to wear rubber gloves, goggles, long – sleeved shirt and long pants to protect grass, trees and shrubs with plastic covers. CAUTION!! DO NOT MIX BLEACH WITH AMMONIA OR DETERGENTS CONTAINNG AMMONIA.
Fellow specific instructions if a commercial mildew remover is used.
Removed all rust by sandblasting, wire brush, steel wool, sandpaper or naval jelly (rinse thoroughly). See Iron, Steel and Ferrous Metal section for SSPC preparation.

Cracks, or open joints, where water may enter should be caulked with a high- quality, painted acrylic caulk. Apply primer over caulked area.
Always dull surfaces with sandpaper or liquid de-glosser.
CAUTION- Liquid de-glossers are generally not recommended on surfaces to be painted with water – based paints.
Replace loose nails with slightly larger, galvanised nails. Leave nail heads flush with hardboard surfaces and counter sink on all other wood surfaces. Prime with a corrosion resistant primer.

WAX MIGRATION This condition can be encountered on hardboard surfaces. If a stain or discoloration persists after removing dirt and/or mildow, it may be a wax migration from the siding.
It can be identified be applying a few drops of water, both to a disca.
If the water beeds on the coloured area an adjacent non-discolored area, but spreads or is absorbed I the areas around the stain, a wax migration condition probably exist in the stained area. In most cases
This discoloration can be removed with a hot detergent solution (TSP), followed with a thorough rinsing with clean water. In extreme cases removing the stain by wiping the area with a clean rag, wet with mineral spirits, may be necessary, followed by a detergent solution (TSP) wash and clean-water rinse. Repeating either process may be necessary until clear water ceases to beeds up on the affected are. Prime the affected are prior to top – coating.
Maintenance painting will frequently not permit complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting a particular surface. Recognize that any surface preparation, short of removal of all old coating system. Check compatibility of previously painted surface using a test patch with the coating if there is any doubt on recoatability.

To paint these surfaces, you must start by solvent cleaning (with mineral spirits) to remove any oily residue. Prime with either a good quality latex or oil primer formulated for these surfaces.
(Exposed to the elements for at least 2 months) If this is possible, all that is necessary is to wipe it clean from dirt and prime with oil or latex primer.
Remove only loose tarnish, but not all tarnish needs to be removed. Then wash with detergent to get rid of dirty and grease. Rinse well and allow to dry. Prime with a top quality oil metal primer.
Start by roughening the surface with fine sandpaper or emery cloth. The wash with soap and water, then rinse and allow to dry. Prime with oil – based metal primer.

NEW: Wipe clean with mineral spirits to eliminate any oil or grease. Remove all rust and mill scale. Prime with a good oil-based metal primer.

PREVIOUSLY PAINTED IRON AND STEEL. If the old film is in good sound condition, all that needs to be done is to de-gloss the old surface with light sanding and clean with mineral spirits. If the old film is in poor condition, it should be removed with paint remover. If metal has rusted, that too must be removed. Prime all bare spots with oil- based metal primer.
Abrasive Blast Cleaning:
A surface with a gray-white, uniform metallic color, slightly roughened to form a suitable anchor pattern for coatings. This surface is free of all, grease, dirt, mill scale, rust, corrosion products, oxides, paint and other foreign matter.
A surface from which all oil, grease, dirt mill scale, rust corrosion products, oxides, paint or other foreign matter have been removed except for light shadows, streaks or other discolorations(of oxide bonded to metal) At least discolorations.
A surface from which all oil, grease, dirt, rust scale and foreign matter have been removed except for slight shadows, streaks or discoloration caused by rust stain or mill scale oxide binder. AT least two-thirds of any square inch shall be free of all visible residues and the remainder shall be limited to light discoloration, slight staining, or light residues mentioned above. If the surface is pitted, slight residues of rust or paint are found in the bottoms of the pits.
Your first coat of paint should be a thinned – down version of your finish. Thin one pint mineral spirits per gallon of solvent out of the can. NOTE: The use of Berger Alkaline Resisting Primer is recommended if customer cannot allow surface to cure 30days @ 75F. BRUSH- OFF BLAST CLEANING (SSPC – SP7, NACE NO.4)
A surface from which oil, grease, dirt, loose rust scale, loose mill scale and loose paint are removed, but tightly adhering mill scale, rust, paint and coatings are permitted to remain if they have been exposed to the abrasive blast pattern, so that numerous flecks of the underlying metal are uniformly distributed over the entire surface.
Removal of oil, grease, dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale and loose paint by water at pressures of 2000 – 5000 psi at a flow of 4-14 gallons per minute.

These specifications describes methods of preparing metal surfaces by removing loose mill scale, loose rust and loose paint wire-brushing, sanding, scraping or chipping with hand or power tools.
Other specifications sometimes used for surface preparation are SSPC-SP1, SOLVENT CLEANING, which describes methods of removing oil, grease, dirt and certain chemical compounds by solvent washing or vapor de-greasing, and SSPC-SP8, PICKLINK, which describes removal of mill scale and rust by chemical reaction. High – pressure water blasting is an effective means of removing old paint and rust scale. Abrasive injection or dry blasting must be used to achieve an anchor patte

Wash to remove grease with a detergent solution. Sand lightly to etch the surface. Prime with epoxy metal primer.
Floors – Check for any dampass on floors by placing a rubber mat down and leaving overnight. Upon inspection, if dampness occurs on the back side of the mat, or concrete surface has been darkened by moisture – Do Not Paint. New concrete should be allowed to cure 30days at 75C. prior to painting.
All concrete surfaces should be etched before painting with a solution of one part muriatic acid and two parts water.(Wear rubber gloves and goggles because this solution is hazardous) Allow solution to bubble, then rinse well with clean water. Brush while rinsing to remove all loose concrete. Allow surface to dry completely. Additional vacuuming may be required to remove powdery residue left from etching. Concrete can also be prepared for painting by lightly sandblasting.
Your first coat of paint should be thinned – down version of your finish. Thin one pint water per gallon of latex paints.
Thin one paint mineral spirits per gallon of solvent- based paints. The topcoat should be used straight out of the can.
NOTE: The use of Berger Alkaline Resisting Primer is recommended if customer cannot allow surface to cure 30 days @ 750 F.

Be sure surface is free from dirt, dust, etc. By sweeping or vacuum cleaning. Remove grease, oil, floor compound and wax by chemical cleaning. Scrape carefully to remove deteriorated coatings. If remaining coating is glossy or very hard, sand it lightly for good adhesion of subsequent coatings. The surface must be thoroughly dry before coating.

Allow to dry 30days under normal conditions prior to painting. If efflorescence or cement dust is preset on masonry and concrete, it should be removed by etching with a 10% solution of muriatic acid. Flush off surface, after etching with clean water and allow to dry. If etching is not possible to neutralize efflorescence; sand, scrape and wire brush; then coat with masonry conditioner before painting.
Surfaces should be free of all dust, dirt and loose or excess mortar. Porous surfaces should be filled with block filler before painting. Latex finishes with afford best results. No special primer is required.

This needs no special preparation. However, stucco should be allowed to sit and dry thoroughly before it is painted. If surface is soft or slightly powdery, first apply one coat of masonry conditioner.
Apply two coats of exterior latex paint formulated for masonry.

Should be cleaned and free from loose paint and all holes should be patched. Paint with exterior latex
CERAMIC TILE AND GLAZED BRICK Wash with detergent then go over with a paste of powder pumice and water to roughen surface. Paint with good quality 2-part epoxy paint.

Should be clean and dry Prime and paint as soon as possible. No painting should be done immediately after a rain or during foggy weather, or when the temperature is below 50F. Knots and pitch streaks shall be scraped or burned, sanded and spot primed before receiving a full coat of primer. All nail holes or small openings should be filled after the priming coat is applied.
Prime with a high quality oil or latex primer (See cedar and red wood).

The main problem with painting these surfaces is the fact that it discolors. This is known as tannin bleed. To control bleed follow these recommendations: Priming with an alkyd-based primer will afford better stain blocking characteristics than a latex primer. In wood containing an extremely high amount of tannin, two coats of primer may be necessary.

Before finish is applied to the panels, they must be cleaned. Apply an alkyd or latex primer, even if hardboard is pre-primed, then finish with desired topcoat.
If glazed allow at least two years before painting. If shingles are porous, treat with masonry conditioner. If shingles are weather, remove all dirty ad dust. Prime with latex primer.

Shall be allowed to dry thoroughly for atleats 30 days before painting. Bare plaster should be dry, cured and hard. Fill ay holes and cracks. Sand smooth. Paint with latex paint. Primer may be used if desired. If so, use a latex type. If previously coated with a cement based coating or lime wash, treats first with masonry conditioner.

Prime with a latex primer – sealer. Do not use a solvent based primer since it will raise the fiber of the wallboard.

If it has shiny surface, dull by sanding lightly and clean with mineral spirits to remove any wax. Prime with oil primer.

Air atomized spraying relies on paint pumped under pressure to conventional spray guns, so that it mixes with a stream of compressed air either internally or externally. The compressed air breaks up the liquid stream or atomizes it, causing it to break up into droplets that form a spray.
Most internal- mix guns have control to regulate fluid flow, atomizing air and spray patterns. Since these adjustments allow the guns to meet the finishing requirements of a variety of sizes and shapes, conventional spray guns are used for coating many high-quality items.
They can apply catalyzed, high solids and waterborne coatings as well as more traditional finishes.
The greatest asset of conventional air- atomized spray equipment is its versatility. In the hands of skillful operator, a spray gun coat practically and object. It can apply various coatings whose viscosity, flow and drying rate are controlled by solvents blending and adjustment of the application environment. A problem is that organic solvent used for thinning are costly. And in the application process they evaporate into the atmosphere, lower transfer efficiency and contribute to formation of photochemical smog.
In addition to their relative low transfer efficiency, conventional spray guns used with organic - solvent thinned paints produce overspray and solvent evaporation, requiring large volumes of make – up air and high exhaust rates to protect workers. Despite all these considerations, however, the versatility of conventional spray is difficult to match. Thus, it is still widely used.

Airless spraying forces paint under pressure through a small orfice in the gun, atomizing it in the same manner as nozzle attached to a garden hose atomizes water. Upon emerging from the orifice, the tremendous internal pressure causes the paint stream to blow apart into atomized droplets. The viscosity of the paint, the size of the orfice and hydraulic pressure determine the speed at which the fluid emerges from the gun. Unlike air-atomized spraying, where compressed air imparts a greater velocity to coating droplets, causing overspray and blow-back, airless spraying lessens overspray and blow-back. Only their own momentum (not compressed air) propels the droplets. This accounts in part for the higher transfer efficiency.
Heating the coating applied by airless spray, using in-line heaters, has the same effect as adding solvents- it lowers viscosity. Thus hot airless spraying can apply paint at lower fluid pressure. The coating viscosity, amount required and overspray are commensurately reduced. Higher viscosity paints, using less solvent, can be sprayed. Consequently, finishing with hot airless spray equipment reduces air pollution and decrease the amount of coating residue requiring disposal. It also compensate for seasonal changes in ambient temperatures.
HVLP Spraying
High- volume low-pressure spraying (HVLP) originally relied on turbines supplying high volumes of low-pressure, heated air to HVLP spray guns. The use of heated air lessens the code cooling associated with air and airless atomization. This not only reduces the tendency to condense atmospheric moisture, but also stabilizes the evaporation of solvent from the coating droplets. Newer specially designed HVLP spray guns, using compressed air from conventional sources, can replace air-atomizing guns. Because of the low atomizing air pressures, coating droplet velocities are low enough to lessen blow back.
Furthermore, lower pressure reduces overspray and eliminates the cloud of vapor associated with conventional spraying.
Air – assisted airless spraying units add compressed air to airless spray. The increased use of high –viscosity, high-solids coatings requires painters to use higher temperatures and higher fluid pressures to atomise paint. In air-assisted airless spraying, compressed air provides addition atomization and pattern control for application of viscous, high –solids coating, allow use of lower fluid pressures and paint teperatures.
Electrostatic Spraying
Electrostatic spraying equipment charges coating droplets as they pass or contact an electrode. It relies upon the attraction of opposite electrical charges. Charged paint particles are attracted electrostatically to the surface of the products to be finished, which are usually at ground potential. Not only are the charged coating droplets attracted electrostatically to the front surfaces of these products, they also wrap around, in some cases, completely coat surfaces. Because of this "wraparound" effect, electrostatic applicators are especially suitable for coating tubular products.
These are however, two disadvantages. First is the higher film build on outside corners, edges and around cutouts.
This is caused by increased electrostatic attraction in these areas. Second is the lower film build on inside corners and recesses. This is caused by limited electrostatic attraction In these areas, commonly described as the "Faraday effect"

Rotating Electrostatic Disk and Bells
Rotating electrostatic disks and bells take advantage of centrifugal and electrostatic forces to atomise paint. Liquid coating materials Is pumped into the center orifice of a rotating material is pumped into the center orifice of a rotating disk or bell. Centrifugal force propels the coating to the edge of the rapidly spinning disk or bell and into the atmosphere. High voltage concentrated on the machined, razor – edge outer rim charges the coating droplets as they spin off the edge. Pait is attracted to oppositely charged surface of parts.
High – visousity, high – solids coatings (65% volume solids and higher) can be atomized and electrostatically applied using high rotational speed disks and bells.
Electrostatic rotating disks are used mostly on automatic lines. A conveyor loaded with parts to be painted loops around the disk In a horse hoe shape.
Rotating electrostatic bells apply coatings in either fixed or reciprocating modes and also can be used manually or attached to robot arms.
Airless Electrostatic Spraying
Airless electrostatic spraying uses high – pressure hydraulic spray guns with a power pack that charges the atomized droplets. The low velocity imparted to these droplet reduces below back and overspray. Airless electrostatic spray guns are used manually or in aqutomatic modes. They may be installed either as fixed units or in conjuction with reciprocators, to coat various products on a conveyor line.
Air- assisted airless electrostatic spraying is really a modification of airless electrostatic spray. The increased use of high viscousity and hig solids coating present problems for airless electrostatic. When heating and higher fluid pressures were used to aid in the atomization of more viscous materials, other problems arose. With the introduction of air assisted airless spraying equipment which uses compressed air to provide additional atomization and pattern control, many of these application problems were solved.
Air- atomized electrostatic spraying improves transfer efficiency by use of power packs that electrostatically charge air atomized droplets. These units may be used manually or automatically , in fixed or reciprocating mountings. Since they impart a higher velocity to coating droplets, their transfer efficiency is lower than that of the other electrostatic units.
Multi-component spraying equipment meters, mixes and sprays multi-component coating materials in one operation. Spraying can be by hydraulic or air-atomizing, internal or external mixing. Aside from having multiple supplies and metering pumps feeding a common applicator, these units have the same components as other spray equipment.
Non – Spray Methods
Dip coating in its simplest from involves immersing products to be painted in a tank of coating material, draining off the excess in a solvent-saturated atmosphere and then drying curing. IT is a fast and efficient method that provides coverage in recessed areas.
Generally, applications involve those where appearance is not critical. Owing to its simplicity, this method lends itself to conveyors and automation. Viscosity and rate of withdrawal from the tank control film thickness. Dip tanks come in all shapes and are sized to accommodate the largest objects to be coated.
Dip coating has its drawbacks: Light parts tend to float and fall from the conveyor fil thickness can vary from top to bottom ("wedge effect") , a fire hazard is created whe organic solvent thinned paint is used by the large volume of coating in the tank and the solvent laden atmosphere of the drain tunnel; fatty edges develop on the bottoms of parts as excess coating drains; and refluxing by the solvent vapors above the tank removes some of the coating. Fire hazards and reflux problems encountered with solvent – thinned dip coating have been eliminated by many finishes who have converted to waterborne paints.
Flow coating overcomes some of the limitations of dip coating. Paint Is pumped from a reservoir through hoses and nozzles onto the upper surface of the product, where it flows over and down the sides of the products. Excess paint drains into a shallow reservoir to be recycled. The volume of coatng required in the system is lower than with dipping; parts will not "float" off the conveyor and extremely large, complaex products, too large to dip, can be painted. Flow coating can be done with parts on a conveyor that takes them through the enclosed or manually in exhausted booths.
Centrifugal coating is based on use of a modified dip tank. After small parts are loaded into an inner basket, the tank is filled with sufficient coating materials to cover the basket of parts and then it is emptied. The basket spins rapidly to remove excess coasting from the parts by centrifugal force. The surplus coating drains down the inside surfaces of the tank and into a sump to be recycled. Coating viscosity, rotational speed and percent solids control film thickness.

Curtain coaters are modified flow coaters, used mainly on high – speed, conveyorised production lines for coating flat substrates . The coating material is pumped to and flows from a slotted pipe or over a weir, from which it falls by gravity in an unbroken "waterfall" or "curtain". Objects dimensional objects can be coated on all six sides I two passes. Excess coating materials collects in a gutter and conveyor speeds control film thickness.
Roller coating is used extensively for finishing that sheets and coiled metals. Coating are rolled surfaces by resilient rollers. When the substrate and rollers travel in the same direction and at the same speed, the method is called direct roller coating. When applied on a continuous strip it is called coil coating.
Electrocoating is the dip coating that uses an applied electrical current to attract paint to oppositely charged surfaces of parts being painted. More information about the process is available in the article. "Electrocoating"
Auto deposition Is similar to Electrocoating. But in this case, a water paint is deposited with no externally applied electrical current, as the result of chemical reactions only. A standard rinse and post- rinse with de-ionized water removes residual coating from the surfaces of parts that have been through the auto deposition tank. This rinse stops the reaction process. Autodeposition requires a low temperature curing cycle (220-230F) after the coating is applied. Used primarily on steel surfaces, auto deposition is capable of coating materials. The thickness of the coating can be wetted by the coating material. The thickness of the coating is self-limiting, ensuring uniform film thickness. Equipment is said to occupy 30% less floor space than that of an electro coat system and capital investment is said to be 25-30% less than that required for electrocoat. Because autodeposition uses waterborne coating with no organic solvents, no air pollution controls are required. Racks do not require stripping since the cured coating prevents further deposition.


All finishing lumber and flooring should be sanded smooth, with the grain not across it. Surface blemishes shall be corrected. If painting use an oil – based enamel undercoat for priming.
Remove loose paper. Test for bleed by applying latex to a small area to make sure wallpaper is waterfast. If bleed occurs, seal paper with one coat of white shellac reduced with an equal volume of alcohol. Avoid skips when applying shellac. Allow to dry one hour before topcoating.
De-glass or etch the surface by lightly sanding. Apply epoxy polyamide or acrylic urethane topcoat for surfaces that may be abused. Light surface area may only require an alkyd topcoat.
Wash and allow to air dry. Apply either an epoxy or alkyd enamel
It is flexible, do not paint it. If stiff, wash with detergent and roughen with sandpaper or steel wool. Prime with solvent based primer. TERRA COTTA
Scrub with detergent and sand lightly with sandpaper.
Prime with alkyd –based primer and finish.
Spray- painting equipment can be classified by atomization method: air, hydraulic or centrifugal. These general types can be subdivided further: conventional air atomized, airless, air-assisted airless, air electrostatic, high-volume low –pressure (HVLP) and rotating electrostatic and bells.



Bad odour is caused not by the paint itself but by bacteria/fungi attack on the paint.
1. Contamination from local extenders
2. Improper treatment of production lines and water
3. High temperature during production
1. Use of good in-can preservative in our formulations
2. Sterilizing of tanks, production lines. Production water should be of good quality.
3. Production under control temperature <= 40 C


Inconsistency I batch to batch paint colour production.
1. Inconsistency In supply of raw – materials
2. Repeat production of several batches of same colour within a short period of time.
1. Bulk purchase of raw – materials that would last for a long period of time to prevent stock out.
2. Approval of colour during QC check done using wet and dry standards in combination with colour card.
3. Proper washing of tanks after production of every batch
4. Use of colour checking equipment.
Standards are kept for corporate customers and revalidated regularly.

Blistering or swelling of paint is caused by the trapping of air moisture or solvent between the surface and the paint film.?

Remove any unstable paint films and allow the wall to dry thoroughly then repaint with a recommended paint. Avoid painting under direct sunlight.


Is caused by dirty from the atmosphere or the surface or from brushes that are inadequately cleaned or due to bits of dried up paint that get stirred in.
Use clean brushes ad paint on clean surface and strain the paint through a mesh before use
These can grow when the surface is continually damp and dirty. Insufficient fungicide/algaecide in the paint can also worsen the situation.
Remove algae/fungi by strapping and burning then wash the walls with the sterilizing solution. Rinse wall allow to dry thoroughly. Apply alkali resisting primer where recommended before painting with desired finish coat.


Brush marks are caused by under – thinning of paints or due to poor application of the final coat of paints or due to poor quality brush.
Ensure paint of the right viscosity is applied using a good brush.

What is CHIPPING:?

Chipping of paint film is due to excessive use if putty or due to very thick coat of paint on defective surface.
Regulate the use of putty and paint.


Chalking occurs when UV rays cause of paint binder to disintergrate. It can happen when interior paints are used for exterior surfaces.
Remove any unstable paint films. Wash and allow the wall to dry thoroughly and repaint with recommended paint.
Make sure the paint is not adulterated with foreign matters/materials.


Efflorescence or formation of white powders deposits on walls after painting is caused due to salt present in the building material like brick and mortar, which surface later on.
Give a long tie gap between plastering and painting (About 6 months) Use paint with a porous film.


Loss of gloss is caused due to poor surface preparation or due to presence of oil or due to over thining of paint.
Clean surface thoroughly and take recommended steps for surface preparation.


After paint is applied, it may discolor. This is caused by particles in the wall reacting with the paint when it is drying. Discoloration could also be caused by water seepage, or contaminants in metal or wood.
Repair water seepage. Make sure the surface is dry before painting and apply Alkaline Resisting Primer.

What is FLAKING?

Flaking off of paint film is due to improper application of primer coat over putty.
It can be due to application of paint on insufficiently dry surface. It can also be due to shrinkage or expansion of surface causing the paint film to move.
Ensure that there are no gaps on covering putty with primer coat. Also ensure that the surface is dry and clean.
Apply an extra coat of primer or use sealer.

What is PEELING?

Peeling is caused by moisture on the wall, poor surface preparation or using an incorrect painting system. This defect happens on walls as well as wood or metal surface.
Checking and repair water seepage. Ensure walls are dry before painting. Use an alkaline resistant base coat or sealer. Patch surface defects with putty. SOLUTION(WOOD)
Prime wood before painting, sand surface and clean off dust.
Remove all paint from metal before re-painting. Prime surface and re-coat with suitable paint.

What is SAGGING?

Sagging happens when the paint drops downward after being on the surface. It is caused by the pigment separating from the paint and settling at the bottom of container and comes as a result of insufficient stirring or storing for too long or under too much heat or faulty thinning.
Avoid storing in hot locations for too long periods
Store in accordance under recommended condition.
Thin only with appropriate thinners.


Non – drying or slow drying of paint film is caused due to humidity, poor air circulation, low temperature or presence of oil or grease on the surface or due to alkalinity of the surface.
Reduce the impact of atmosphere conditions to the extent possible, scrup oil or grease off with a rag soaked in white spirit and wash with water and soap.


Wrinkling happens when the paint forms film like undulating waves. Applying too much paint or drying during high temperature or painting on a topcoat before the undercoat is dry can cause this defect to happen.
Avoid applying too much paint. Make sure no paint accumulates around bolts, rivers, e.t.c. Wait until each coat dries before you re-coat.

Berger Paint Nig

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